- Not designating.
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Free logic — is a logic with no existential presuppositions. Alternatively, it is a logic whose theorems are valid in all domains, including the empty domain. Explanation In classical logic there are theorems which clearly presuppose that there is something… … Wikipedia
Truth-value semantics — In formal semantics, truth value semantics is an alternative to Tarskian semantics. It has been primarily championed by Ruth Barcan Marcus, H. Leblanc, and M. Dunn and N. Belnap. It is also called the substitution interpretation (of the… … Wikipedia